Please note that this book is a work in progress, the equivalent of a pre-alpha release. All the code should work, because if it didn’t the site could not be built. But there is still a lot of work to do to explain the historical methods under discussion. Feel free to leave feedback as issues on the GitHub repository, or to e-mail me.

One of the most powerful things that you can do with R is also one of the easiest: make plots. Let’s begin with a distinction between plotting and other kinds of visualization, though the distinction is somewhat arbitrary. A map is of course a visualization, as is a network graph. But there are other kind of plots which are probably what come to mind first when you think of plots. It is these kinds of plots that we will address first: scatter plots, line charts, bar charts, histograms, and the like. In this chapter we will use several datasets from the historydata package to create these kinds of plots.1

Despite their apparent simplicity, such plots are powerful for two reasons. First, because they can turn numbers or other values into visualizations, they can uncover information which we cannot otherwise readily understand. Take for example this list of the years for which midshipman entered the United States Navy. I’ve limited this list to just the years from 1801 to 1809. What is the pattern?

``````year_midshipman <- c(1809, 1809, 1808, 1809, 1808, 1809, 1809,
1809, 1809, 1806, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1810, 1809, 1809,
1810, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1810, 1807, 1806, 1806, 1807,
1809, 1809, 1810, 1806, 1808, 1809, 1808, 1807, 1810, 1810, 1809,
1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1810, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1810, 1806,
1810, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1808, 1809, 1810, 1809,
1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1809, 1809, 1807, 1809, 1809, 1809,
1806, 1810, 1809, 1808, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1810, 1808, 1809, 1810,
1809, 1809, 1810, 1806, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1808,
1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1808, 1810, 1809, 1810,
1809, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1810,
1809, 1809, 1806, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1808, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809,
1809, 1810, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1808,
1809, 1810, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1806, 1810, 1809, 1808, 1809, 1809,
1810, 1806, 1809, 1810, 1809, 1808, 1810, 1806, 1809, 1808, 1809,
1810, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1810, 1810, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1806,
1808, 1808, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1809, 1809, 1809,
1807, 1809, 1809, 1808, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1810, 1809, 1809, 1809,
1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1809, 1810, 1809,
1809, 1806, 1810, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1810, 1809, 1809, 1809,
1806, 1809, 1808, 1808, 1809, 1809, 1810, 1806, 1806, 1808, 1809,
1806, 1809, 1810, 1809, 1808, 1809, 1806, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1809,
1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1809, 1809, 1807, 1808, 1809, 1808,
1806, 1809, 1806, 1806, 1810, 1809, 1810, 1809, 1809, 1810, 1809,
1808, 1806, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809,
1807, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1808, 1806, 1810,
1809, 1806, 1808, 1809, 1810, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1807, 1809, 1809,
1809, 1808, 1809, 1808, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1809, 1807, 1809, 1809,
1807, 1806, 1806, 1809, 1810, 1809, 1808, 1809, 1808, 1809, 1809,
1809, 1809, 1810, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809,
1809, 1810, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1810, 1806,
1809, 1809, 1810, 1806, 1808, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1808, 1809,
1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1809, 1806, 1809, 1808, 1810,
1809, 1806, 1809, 1808, 1809, 1809, 1808, 1806, 1809, 1810, 1808,
1809, 1809, 1810, 1808, 1809, 1809, 1810, 1809, 1809)``````

Even with only 379 people to keep track of for only five years, we can’t detect any pattern just by looking at the list of years.2 But with a single command we can visualize the frequency with which each year appears in our five year sample.

``hist(year_midshipman)``

With our plot we can see clearly see a pattern: far more new officers entered the navy in 1809 than in the surrounding years.

The other way that plotting is powerful is that it can express the relationship between variables visually. In our midshipmen example above, we only plotted one variable: the count of the years in which midshipmen entered the navy. We can as a more complicated question that involves two variables: did officers who entered the navy very early in its history become captains faster than officers who entered later?

This chart show the relationship between the date than a person became the lowest ranked officer in the early navy and the number of years it took him to become captain. The horizontal axis is the x-axis and the vertical axis is the y-axis. Part of the convention of graphics which we have become acculturated to expect is that the x-axis represents an independent variable, and y-axis represents an dependent variable. In other words, whatever is plotted on the y-axis is thought of a depending on the x-axis, but not the other way round. The date one entered the navy may well have affected how long it took someone to become a captain, but it is nonsensical to say that the length of time it took someone to become a captain affected when he entered the navy.

This plot is able to express an even more powerful historical argument because it demonstrates a relationship between those two variables. You can see from the visualization that a newly minted officer in the first years of the navy could expect to become an officer relatively quickly, in about fifteen years or so. But for officers entering the navy in the 1810s, almost everyone had to wait thirty or forty years to become a captain. We might surmise that that a couple of reasons were at play: perhaps many more officers joined the navy for the War of 1812, and then after that war until the Civil War the navy hardly expanded at all, so that by 1812 there were many more officers jockeying for few captaincies.3

These two examples point to the real power of plotting for historians: they give us a way of iteratively asking and answering questions about the past. We began with a dataset of promotions in the navy, and asked the simple question about what years had the most new officers. That question led us to a more complicated question about how long it took those new officers to be promoted. That visualization in turn might lead us to new questions. We might ask, for example, how many captaincies were available in any given year, or we might ask how what proportion of incoming officers ever became captain. Each of those questions could be answered with another visualization. But our plots should also lead us to questions which cannot be answered with data. Now that we know how long it took officers to be promoted, we might go back to the archives to ask whether officers who became captains in fifteen years ever had trouble because of their rapid climb; alternatively, we might look for letters in which later officers complained about the long wait for a command of their own. The visualization provides us with answers, but also with new questions that we can bring to the data and to the qualitative sources.

When using plots to express relationships between variables, you are using an enormously powerful tool. You must be careful to use it to ask the right questions, and to be suspicious of exactly what the causal or correlative mechanism might be between two different variables. Historians have a special affinity for plots which show the relationship between time and some other variable, which are called time series. But it is possible to express the relationship between any two or more variables visually, even if there is no good causal or correlative link between the two. It is also easy to overwhelm the viewer or reader, instead of pointing her to a few good visualizations that illustrate your key point. One must also keep in mind that even if a visualiation is worth a thousand words, ten thousand words are still necessary to explain what the visualization means and to draw an interpretation out of it.

The Grammar of Graphics

We can classify charts by the number of variables that they represent and by how they go about doing the representation:

• One variable: a histogram such as the example above.
• Two variables: scatterplots, line charts, bar charts, and the like usually express two variables.
• Three or more variables: But it is possible to map a different kind of drawing besides the x and y position, such as the color and size of a line or circle in order to represent more than one variable.
• Three or more variables: It is also possible to facet a plot, meaning to show many charts each of which represents a different variable right next to each other to show how one variable affects another.
• Three or more variables: It is also possible to plot multiple variables on the same plot using the x and y position.4

The principle behind all this is that we are making a map between the variables in our data sets and the modes of representing them: from time to the position on the x-axis, from the value to the position on the y-axis, from the type to the color, and from the other value to the size. This map constitutes a kind of a grammar of graphics.

Grammar of graphics can refer to two related ideas. In the the generic sense, we can use the term to refer to the conventions for what visual representations mean. For basic plots like scatterplots these are well established for most people, though visual literacy is presumably higher in disciples that deal with data like the sciences than it is in history. There are also more complex visualizations, like network charts which take much more explaining.

It is important to become familiar with these conventions. One common guide is Edward Tufte, who has a number of useful is also sometimes idiosyncratic recommendations in his books. An even better way to become familiar with the grammar is to expose yourself to as many kinds of visualizations of different subject matter as possible. There is unfortunately a discourse around visualizations that makes fun of bad visualizations. Many visualizations are indeed bad, and you should steer clear of them. But don’t let this conversation discourage you from attempting many bad visualizations in the pursuit of making a few good ones.

This bar chart from Fox News makes the error of not starting the two bars at 0. The comparison between them is thus entirely meaningless.

The other meaning of Grammar of Graphics is as a formal term described by Leland Wilkinson in a book by that name, and made available in R for plots through Hadley Wickham’s ggplot2 package.

ggplot2

Basic idea of layers

geoms and stats

``````library(ggplot2)
mtcars %>% ggplot(aes(x = wt, y = mpg)) + geom_point() + geom_smooth() + ggtitle("Weight vs. MPG in MTCARS data set")``````

One dimensional plots: way of seeing distribution

Time series

Two dimensional plots

Scatter plot

With smoothing. For a description of the statistics of smoothing, see the chapter on statistics.

Multi dimensional analysis through plotting

Multi dimensional through facetting

Small multiples

facet wrap vs facet ribbon

``````library(historydata)
library(tidyr)
sarna %>%
ggplot(aes(x = year, y = value)) +
geom_line() +
facet_grid(estimate ~ ., scales = "free") +
xlim(1800, 2000) +
labs(x = NULL, title = "Estimated population of American Jews")``````
``````## Warning in loop_apply(n, do.ply): Removed 4 rows containing missing values
## (geom_path).``````
``````## Warning in loop_apply(n, do.ply): Removed 4 rows containing missing values
## (geom_path).``````
``````## Warning in loop_apply(n, do.ply): Removed 4 rows containing missing values
## (geom_path).``````
``````## Warning in loop_apply(n, do.ply): Removed 4 rows containing missing values
## (geom_path).``````

Annotation, titles, captions

Themes

These techniques from ggplot2 can also be used for mapping, but that will be covered in the mapping chapter.

Saving plots

PNG vs SVG vs PDF vs etc.

• Hadley Wickham, ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis (Springer, 2009).
• Leland Wilkinson, The Grammar of Graphics, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2005).
• Winston Chang, R Graphics Cookbook (O’Reilly, 2012).
• David J. Staley, Computers, Visualization, and History: How New Technology Will Transform Our Understanding of the Past (M.E. Sharpe, 2003).
• Kieran Healy and James Moody, “Data Visualization in Sociology” Annual Review of Sociology 40 (2014): 105–128.
• Tufte’s books.

1. Assuming that you have installed devtools, you can install the historydata package with the following command: `devtools::install_github("ropensci/historydata")`.

2. The full dataset for careers in the early American navy has 5705 events: that is far more than we can keep track of without visualization, and it is a relatively small dataset.

3. This example is drawn from Abby Mullen’s work on the early U.S. Navy. Her dataset about officer promotions is available in the historydata package. See a description of the dataset and a citation in `help("naval_promotions", package = historydata)`.

4. Using different scales on the axes is never recommended, however.